Alcohol reduces tension and coordination, lowers inhibitions, impairs concentration and reaction time, and slows reflexes. The frontal lobes of the brain are affected causing an overall reduction in the size of the brain and increase in size of the ventricles, not to mention other effects on the central nervous system, reticular formation, the spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and many neurotransmitter systems. Alcoholism causes vitamin deficiency, “Wernicke’s Encephalopathy” “Korsakoff’s Syndrome”. Typical withdrawal symptoms include shaking (tremors), sleep problems, nausea, hallucinations and even seizures.
Alcoholism is mainly distinguishable by four symptoms
- Craving: A strong need to drink.
- Loss of control: Inability to control one’s drinking.
- Physical dependence: Withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, occur when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking.
- Tolerance: The need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to “Get high”.
Effects of cocaine
Cocaine is a drug which directly affects the brain. Its action on the body is instant and the effects disappear within a few minutes. Small amounts of cocaine usually make the user feel energetic and mentally active. It can also decrease hunger and sleep. Repeated and increasing use of cocaine leads to a state of restlessness and paranoia. This may result in paranoid psychosis.
Regularly inhaling cocaine can lead to loss of sense of smell and a chronically inflamed nose. Intravenous injection of cocaine may cause an allergic reaction, which can result even in death. Cocaine has a tendency to kill hunger and regular users may experience weight loss. Disturbances in heart rhythm, respiratory failure, and seizures and headaches are some of the many medical consequences of cocaine abuse.
Symptoms of ambien addiction
A constant crave for cocaine is the most visible symptom of cocaine abuse. Restlessness, irritability, and anxiety are common among cocaine abusers. A feeling of depression on withdrawal of the drug has been reported in many cases.
Codeine, a prescription drug belongs to narcotic analgesics, is a pain killer and cough suppressant. Natural Codeine is a constituent of opium and is a member of the drug class opiates. However, the pharmaceutical–grade codeine available today is produced by methylating morphine. Presence of codeine can be found in many cough syrups and pain tablets. It is available as tablets, capsules or liquid and normally be taken orally. Codeine can be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly and rectally. Intravenous injection of this drug has many side effect the most common symptoms of crack abuse. Swelling and bleeding of mucous membranes and damage to nasal cavities are also seen among crack smokers.
Effects of Crack Cocaine
Constricted blood vessels, increased body temperature and hyper blood pressure are the main physical effects of crack use. Smoking crack may cause respiratory problems and severe chest pains with lung trauma and bleeding. The human liver has a tendency to combine cocaine and alcohol, if they were used mixed, and to produce cocaethylene, a substance which can increase the risk of sudden death.
Crack works on the automatic nervous system. This system manages the sympathetic system which controls some important functions such as heart beat and breathing. Crack can make the brain’s neuro transmitters to release dopamine, a chemical in the brain which releases feelings of happiness.
The long term effects of crack include agitation, mood change, bad temper, auditory hallucinations, and extreme paranoia.
Symptoms of Crack Addiction
Changes in blood pressure and breathing rates, vomiting, anxiety, and insomnia are the most common symptoms of crack abuse. Swelling and bleeding of mucous membranes and damage to nasal cavities are also seen among crack smokers.
Effects of Ecstasy
Ecstasy can affect the mind and body of an abuser. A relaxed cheerful mood and feelings, reduced concern, increased sensitivity and a high energy level are the positive effects of this drug. It suppresses appetite, thirst and the need to sleep.
Long term after effects of ecstasy include nervousness, paranoia and gloominess. This can be attributed to the decreased serotonin levels found in the brain for up to three weeks after their last dose. Use of ecstasy may severely damage the neurons in the brain that transmit seratonin. Even recreational use of the drug can cause permanent damage and lead to depression, anxiety, memory loss, and neuropsychotic disorders.
Symptoms of Ecstasy Addiction
Nausea, cold sweats, chills, hallucinations, increased body temperature, teeth clenching, tremors, double vision and muscle cramps are the common symptoms of Ecstasy addiction. Sleep problems, anxiety, and blurred vision are also seen among Ecstasy addiction.
Effects of Heroin
Soon after the administration of the drug to the body, heroin reaches brain and being converted to morphine. Abusers often experience a pleasurable sensation this time and the intensity of the rush is proportional to the dose. As it enters the brain so rapidly, heroin is highly addictive. The user may experience warm flushing of the skin, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and severe itching. The addiction itself is the most harmful effect of heroin use. The drug can change the brains and behavior of a user. Continual heroin injection use may lead to collapsed veins, bacterial infections of the blood vessels and heart valves, abscesses and liver or kidney diseases.
Symptoms of Heroin Addiction
An incessant craving for heroin is the most visible symptom of addiction. Dry mouth, warm flushing of the skin, nausea, vomiting, and severe itching are other common symptoms. An addict may show withdrawal symptoms between 24 and 48 hours after stopping the intake of heroin. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Effects of LSD
The effects of LSD depend on the dose taken, the user’s personality, and the environs in which the drug is used. Some of the physical effects are dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, insomnia, tremors, and dry mouth.
Many of the LSD users experience frightening thoughts and feelings and fear of insanity and death. Some fatal accidents have also been reported under LSD influence. Prolonged LSD use may lead to long lasting psychoses, such as schizophrenia or severe depression.
Symptoms of LSD Addiction
Common symptoms of LSD addiction include dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, insomnia, tremors, and dry mouth. Distorted perception of time and fusion of senses are also seen among LSD addicts.
Effects of Marijuana
THC in Marijuana smoke can quickly pass from the lungs into the bloodstream, which can carry it to organs throughout the body, including the brain. In the brain, THC connects to cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells and influences their functioning. Marijuana can cause problems with memory and learning, distorted perception, loss of coordination, and increased heart rate. Long–term marijuana can cause some changes in the brain.
Smoking Marijuana increases the risk of heart attack. Even infrequent use of the drug can cause stinging of the mouth and throat, and heavy cough. Regular smoking of Marijuana can cause respiratory problems. Marijuana fumes contain carcinogens, which can promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract. THC can impair the immune system’s ability to fight off infectious diseases.
Symptoms of Marijuana Addiction
Bloodshot eyes, loss of memory, aggression, trouble walking, sleepiness, increased heart rate, dry mouth and throat, hallucinations, and paranoia are the common symptoms of Marijuana addiction.
Marijuana withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, anxiety, loss of appetite, irritability during abstinence from the drug, stomach pain, insomnia, weight loss, and unsteady hands.
Effects of Methamphetamine
Users taking Methamphetamine for the first time feel a short yet intense “Rush”. Increased activity, decreased appetite, and a sense of well being lasting 20 minutes to 12 hours are the short term side effects. Users of Meth can develop a tolerance quickly, requiring larger amounts to get high. Paranoia, hallucinations, repetitive behavior, and delusions of parasites or insects crawling under the skin are the side effects if taken for long. Chronic and high dosage users often exhibit violent and aggressive behavior, sometimes coupled with extreme paranoia. Constant use of Meth can also lead to heart failure, brain damage, and stroke. Mental disorders such as delusions or hallucinations are reported as side effects. Extreme, acute psychiatric and psychological symptoms that may even lead to suicide or murder also have been reported.
Symptoms of Meth Addiction
Addiction to Methamphetamine reaches low intensity stage, binge stage, and high intensity stage. Abusers in the binge and high intensity stage smoke or inject meth to get the maximum effect. As a result of the “High” feeling achieved by the use of methamphetamine, self–confidence is artificially boosted. This feeling will induce abusers to experiment adventurous acts beyond their physical limitations. In certain cases, users avoid taking food and forgo sleep.
Effects of Morphine
Regular use of Morphine decreases hunger, reduces the sex drive, produces constipation, inhibits the cough reflex; it also interfere with the menstrual cycle of women abusers. This drug has effect on babies born to addicted mothers. It is passed through the placenta and reaches the unborn baby. Breast–fed babies of addicted mothers become addicted to the drug which they ingest through their mother’s milk. Morphine overdose can create dilated pupils, drowsiness, coma, low pulse rate, low blood pressure and fluid in the lungs. It reduces the ability to think or be fully aware of surroundings.
Symptoms of Morphine Addiction
Regular use of Morphine will result in developing tolerance, physical and psychological dependence towards it. With the sudden stoppage of this drug, the body of abuser experiences withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days.
Effects of Opiate Addiction
Opiate addiction has various effects–sedative, reflexes, movements, breathing which are slow, raspy speech, cold skin, and possible vomiting. A central nervous system disorder, opiate addiction is caused by continuous opiate intake.
Symptoms of Opiate Addiction
Opiate withdrawal symptoms include agitation, anxiety, tremors, muscle aches, hot and cold flashes, sometimes nausea, extremely uncomfortable vomiting, and diarrhea. The dose and speed of withdrawal has a direct relation on the intensity of the reaction. Opiates, like heroin, that have spontaneous reactions on ingestion have more intense but briefer symptoms.
Effects of Opium
A person, who tries this drug for the first time becomes nauseous and even vomits. The pupils constrict, pulse and respiration rate slows and blood pressure falls. Depending on the amount of opium taken, this stage will change to a half conscious i.e. dreamy state. The various effects exerted by opium ranges from analgesia to narcosis, obsession to this drug can also lead to malnutrition and general poor self–care.
Symptoms of Opium Addiction
The first of three addiction symptoms that develop with the regular users is physical dependence. This occurs when the body adapts to the presence of drug for its functioning. If the drug is suddenly stopped withdrawal symptoms such as muscle spasms, back pain, tremors, restlessness, anxiety, rapid pulse, crying, runny nose and increased blood pressure occur. The severity of the symptoms depends on the amount of drug used. Tolerance is the next and it varies from person to person. In this condition the body of the abuser gets adapted to a certain amount of the drug being there and a higher dose of it is drug is required to get the initial effect. The last one is the psychological dependence. It is a condition when the abuser has a craving for the drug; it lasts even after the person stops using it.