Current Perspectives of the Problem
Drug Addiction is a global socio-cultural problem at all ages and involves both sexes of human populations. While the origins of drug use practices lies in antiquity, the world is faced today with a bewildering range of modern day variability in drug practices associated with socioeconomic inequalities and an increasingly hedonistic lifestyle. The impact of drug abuse is almost never a ‘single person’ issue and is often the cause of breakdown in family systems and economic integrity. The consequences of risk behaviour related to drug abuse is linked to a plethora of co morbidities apart from that due to the drug effects.
Worldwide, the business of drug production and illegal trafficking is a multibillion dollar annual enterprise. All countries make efforts through suitable legislation for the control and management of drug production, medicinal and sanctioned use and also prevention and control of illicit production, sale and trafficking. However, the balance between Supply Reduction through enforcement and Demand Reduction through social reconstructive efforts yet remains in favour of the former.Extent of the problem:
- Estimates indicate 14 million people in India are dependent drinkers requiring ‘help’
- Over 2.09 million people are living with HIV in India, (National AIDS Control Organization, Annual Report, 2012-2013).
- The percentage of the drinking population aged under 21 years has increased from 2% to more than 14% in the past 15 years according to studies by Alcohol and Drugs Information Centre India, a non-governmental organization (NGO)
- Up to 18% of the total work force may have serious personal problems; one of the main problems being Chemical Dependency
- Children whose parents have a drug/alcohol problem are more likely to develop a chemical dependency problem themselves, apart from other psychosocial disabilities
- The Central Ministries recognize the deficiency of adequate and accurate data on the situation of chemical dependency in rural areas and those below the poverty line. More specific information is expected from the concurrent Household Survey
- The Narcotics Control Bureau (India), National Drug Abuse Treatment Centre and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime-Regional Office for South Asia report 26 Jun 2013 indicate.
- 5% of the global population aged 15-64 use drugs.
- 0.7% (500 million) of world population are problem drug users.
- Around 27 million problem drug users have significant health problems.
- 18% of Injecting Drug Users are HIV positive.
- 2,63,000 deaths each year are caused by drugs and nearly half of them are due to drug overdose.
- Around 122 Drug Deaddiction Centres under the Central Government can cater to only around 30% of the total admissions for treatment. The remaining are in the private sector and may provide non standardized care.